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    Our Top Five 2D Single Crystals for R&D

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials - single-layer materials that consist of just one layer of atoms - have a wide range of uses in materials research and development.

    It is the size of such materials that affects how they behave, and therefore, their properties. For example, electrical conductivity, chemical reactivity and other material properties can all change when at nanoscale.

    In this post, we take a look at single crystals that are available to help R&D professionals create their own 2D materials.

    1. Graphenium Graphite

    Graphene was produced in 2004 using Graphenium Graphite, a special HOPG-style Graphite with flake sizes reaching dimensions of over a centimetre. The resulting Graphene has earned the title of a ‘wonder material’, being both the thinnest and strongest material known.

    The structure of Graphene gives it outstanding electrical and thermal conductivity properties, making it ideal for use in electronics, solar cells, batteries and high-speed transistors. Equally, it has great potential as a component in composites and protective coatings used in any number of industrial applications including aircraft, buildings and even spacecraft.

    2. Molybdenum Disulphide, MoS2

    Molybdenum Disulphide is a transition metal dichalcogenide. The structure of the material is made up of a hexagonal plane of S atoms on either side of a hexagonal plane of Mo atoms. With strong covalent bonds between the Mo and S atoms, but weak forces holding layers together, the material can be mechanically exfoliated to form 2-dimensional sheets of MoS2.

    Following the discovery of Graphene, interest and research around Molybdenum Disulphide grew. It’s now understood that its indirect bandgap of 1.3 eV means it can be advantageous in comparison to Graphene in electronic and optoelectronic applications.

    3. Tungsten Disulphide, WS2

    Closely related to MoS2, Tungsten Disulphide is an indirect semiconductor with a bandgap of approximately 1.6 eV. At the monolayer state, the bandgap becomes a direct of size 2.1 eV, thus showing strong photoluminescence.

    The material’s high electron mobility frequently sees it used in electronic applications. It’s also used as a dry lubricant for bearings and moulds.

    4. Hexagonal Boron Nitride, h-BN

    Hexagonal Boron Nitride is an insulation layered material with a large bandgap of size 5 eV. h-BN can be used as an atomically thin dielectric with high quality, as well as a platform for plasmonic devices.

    It’s often used as a component material when Graphite would be problematic. For example, h-BN’s lubricity does not require water or gas molecules trapped between the layers, unlike Graphite. Therefore, h-BN lubricants can be used even in vacuums – seeing it used in space applications.

    5. Gallium Selenide, GaSe

    Gallium Selenide is a chemical compound that is a semiconductor as well as photoconductor. It is known to have been used as a far-infrared conversion material.

    The material’s bandgap is approximately 2 eV. GaSe has a direct band gap with strong photoluminescence and is used for optoelectronic devices.

    Goodfellow offers these 2D materials in a flake form. In addition, upon request, Goodfellow can provide support with the exfoliation process of these 2D crystals or with deposition onto Silicon Oxide substrates. All samples, which can be supplied on Silicon Oxide substrates on request, come with (x,y) coordinates as well as micro-images in various magnifications in order to aid flake identification.         

    For more information, contact the team.

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